Ulysses Draft Analysis

Episode 12: Cyclops

Details of the various draft stages.

Compiled by Danis Rose and John O'Hanlon

2017 edition U pages 262-308
1922 edition U pages 280-330

Note

Michael Groden published the first detailed account of the development of the “Cyclops” episode of Ulysses in an articled entitled “‘Cyclops’ in Progress” in the James Joyce Quarterly XII (Fall 1974-Winter 1975), pages 123-68, and again in his book Ulysses in Progress (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977).

Early Drafts

u12.0 (eo-text)
The earliest drafts of some fragments of text are missing. We include here a plan, on the last verso of NLI.10 (see below), of the arrivals of several characters to the pub and, in the same copybook, a brief exchange between Joyce and his friend Frank Budgen in the style of the episode, possibly written in a Zurich tavern; June 1919.
MS: , missing; NLI.10, fol. 49v(48v), 25v), 28v
Published edition: The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), page 107 (part only).
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A)*

Buffalo MS V.A.8: School exercise book with blue paper covers. [24] leaves of graph paper, 21.6 x 17.5 cm. Text in Joyce's hand in black ink and pencil, and with pencil additions and revisions. The 12 rectos are numbered (and misnumbered) by Joyce: 1-15, 17-25. Fols. 2v, 6v, 7v, 9v, 10v, 12v, 13v, 15v, 16v and 25v are blank.
NLI MS 36,639/10 (NLI.10): School exercise book with blue paper covers. [24] leaves of graph paper, 21.6 x 17.5 cm. Text in Joyce's hand in black ink and pencil, and with pencil additions and revisions. The 12 rectos are numbered (and misnumbered) by Joyce: 25-38, 40-49, intended, despite the misnumbering, to follow V.A.8 directly. Fols. 29v, 31v, 32v, 33v, 37v, 38v, and 40v-49r are blank.

u12A.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (the original opening, numbered “1” by Joyce) covers U84 68-86, 215-217 and (unused): Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: V.A.8, fols. 1, 2, 1v
Reproduced: JJA 13: 85-87
Published editions: “The V.A.8 Copybook: An Early Draft of the ‘Cyclops’ Chapter of Ulysses with Notes to its Development”, ed. Myron Schwartzmann, James Joyce Quarterly XII (Fall 1974-Winter 1975), pages 84-122; Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 152-154.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops)

u12B.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (numbered “2” by Joyce) covers U84 244-478, 697-751, 1180-1214: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: V.A.8, fols. 2, 3, 4-5v-4v, 4-3v, 5, 6, 7, / 7, 8, 9, 10
Reproduced: JJA 13: 87-103
Published editions: “The V.A.8 Copybook: An Early Draft of the ‘Cyclops’ Chapter of Ulysses with Notes to its Development”, ed. Myron Schwartzmann, James Joyce Quarterly XII (Fall 1974-Winter 1975), pages 84-122; Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 152-154.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N01 (NLI.3), N05 (NLI.5B)

u12C.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (numbered “3” by Joyce) covers U84 939-987, 845-849, 887-926: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: V.A.8, fols. 10, 11, 12, 13
Reproduced: JJA 13: 103-109
Published editions: “The V.A.8 Copybook: An Early Draft of the ‘Cyclops’ Chapter of Ulysses with Notes to its Development”, ed. Myron Schwartzmann, James Joyce Quarterly XII (Fall 1974-Winter 1975), pages 84-122; Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 152-154.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N02 (VI.D.7)

u12D.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (the finale of the episode, numbered “4” by Joyce) covers U84 1770-1918: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: V.A.8, fols. 13, 14, 15-14v, 16(17), 17(18), 17v-18(18v-19), 19(20)
Reproduced: JJA 13: 109-121
Published editions: “The V.A.8 Copybook: An Early Draft of the ‘Cyclops’ Chapter of Ulysses with Notes to its Development”, ed. Myron Schwartzmann, James Joyce Quarterly XII (Fall 1974-Winter 1975), pages 84-122; Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 152-154.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N02 (VI.D.7), N04 (NLI.5A)

u12E.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (numbered “5” by Joyce) covers U84 1512-1577, 1364-1408: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: V.A.8, fols. 20(21), 21(22), 20v-23v(21v-24v), 19v-20(20v-21), 18v(19v)
Reproduced: JJA 13: 120-130
Published editions: “The V.A.8 Copybook: An Early Draft of the ‘Cyclops’ Chapter of Ulysses with Notes to its Development”, ed. Myron Schwartzmann, James Joyce Quarterly XII (Fall 1974-Winter 1975), pages 84-122; Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 152-154.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N02 (VI.D.7), N04 (NLI.5A)

u12F.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (numbered “6” by Joyce) covers U84 unused, 1628-1630, 498-518: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: V.A.8, fols. 21(22), 22(23), 21v(22v), NLI.10 27v
Reproduced: JJA 13: 125-127
Published edition: Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 170-171;
Published edition: The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), page 99.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N01 (NLI.3), N04 (NLI.5A)

u12G.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (numbered “7” by Joyce) covers U84 1239-1257, 1329-1353, unused: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: V.A.8, fols. 23(24), 22v(23v), NLI.10 fol. 25v
Reproduced (V.A.8 only): JJA 13: 128-129
Published edition (V.A.8 only): Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 172-173.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N02 (VI.D.7), N05 (NLI.5B)

u12H.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (numbered “8” by Joyce) covers U84 1008-1014, 1084-1140, 1096-1102: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: V.A.8, fols. 24-23v(25-24v), NLI.10 25
Reproduced (V.A.8 only): JJA 13: 130-131
Published edition: Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 173-174 (V.A.8 part); The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), page 83(97) (NLI.10 part).
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N05 (NLI.5B)

u12J.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment covers U84 1675-1753: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: NLI.10, fols. 26, 27, 28
Published edition: The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), pages 98-99(84-85).
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops)

u12K.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment covers U84 1593-1620: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: NLI.10, fols. 27v, 26v
Published edition: The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), pages 99-100(85-86).
Notebooks used: —

u12M.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment covers U84 151-205: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: NLI.10, fols. 29, 30
Published edition: The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), pages 100-101(86-87).
Notebooks used: N02 (VI.D.7), N04 (NLI.5A)

u12N.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment (the episode's new opening scene) covers U84 1-150, 206-243: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: NLI.10, fols. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 34v, 35, 36
Published edition: The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), pages 101-105(87-90).
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N02 (VI.D.7), N04 (NLI.5A)

u12P.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment covers U84 525-678: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: NLI.10, fols. 35v-36, 36v-37, 38, 39(40)
Published edition: The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), pages 105-106(90-92).
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N04 (NLI.5A)

u12Q.1 (proto-text)
First extant draft; this fragment covers U84 1312-1316, 1266-1288: Zurich, mid June-July 1919.
MS: NLI.10, fols. 39(40)
Published edition: The Dublin Ulysses papers, vol. 1, ed. Danis Rose (East Lansing: House of Breathings, 2012), page 106-107(92).
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N02 (VI.D.7), N05 (NLI.5B)

Buffalo V.A.6 and V.A.7: Buffalo V.A.6 consists of two very large sheets of unruled foolscap, 44.8 x 36cm, folded to 8 pages, where each page measures 36 x 22.4 cm. All pages are written on in ink, with ink and pencil revisions. Buffalo V.A.7 is a single sheet of heavy unruled paper, 22.4 x 18cm, torn from a notebook, with notes by Joyce and revisions for V.A.6 on the verso.

u12E.1+ (proto-text)
Redraft of the mixed “scene 5” (see u12E1 above) recopied onto large sheets: Zurich, July 1919.
MS: Buffalo V.A.6, pages 1, 2, 3
Reproduced: JJA 13: 134a, 134b, 134c
Published edition: Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 178-181.
Notebooks used: N02 (VI.D.7)

u12F.1+ (proto-text)
Redraft of the mixed “scene 6” (see u12F1 above) recopied onto large sheets: Zurich, July 1919.
MS: Buffalo V.A.6, pages 3, 4, 5
Reproduced: JJA 13: 134c, 134d, 134e
Published edition: Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 181-183.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops)

u12G.1+ (proto-text)
Redraft of the mixed “scene 7” (see u12G1 above) recopied onto large sheets: Zurich, July 1919.
MS: Buffalo V.A.6, pages 5, 6, V.A.7 1r
Reproduced: JJA 13: 134e, 134f, 136
Published edition: Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 183-185.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops)

u12H.1+ (proto-text)
Redraft of the mixed “scene 7” (see u12H1 above) recopied onto large sheets, plus an addendum (the basis of U84 129-140): Zurich, July 1919.
MS: Buffalo V.A.6, pages 7, 8
Reproduced: JJA 13: 134g, 134h
Published edition: Joyce's Notes and Early Drafts for Ulysses: Selections from the Buffalo Collection, ed. Philip Herring (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), pages 185-187.
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops)

u12.2 (proto-text)
Fair copy (missing), sorting and amalgamating the various episodes before final fair-copying; Zurich, July-August 1919.
MS: , missing

Fair Copy

u12.3 (Rosenbach)
Final fair copy (ink); Zurich, September 1919
MS: Rosenbach Museum, fols. numbered 1-60
Reproduced: A Facsimile of the Manuscript (Faber, 1975): vol. I
Notebooks used: Sheets 12 (Cyclops), N01 (NLI.3), N02 (VI.D.7), N03 (VIII.A.5), N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B)

Typescript

u12.4   (Gabler—B: see also u12.4′)
First typescript: exemplar (missing) prepared and revised for publication in Little Review (In 4 parts: November 1919, December 1919, January 1920 and March 1920).
MS: missing

u12.4'   (Gabler—B)
First typescript: spare exemplar (incomplete).
MS Buffalo V.B.10.b: missing, 199 (p.17), missing, 204-205 (pp.22-23), missing
Reproduced: JJA 13: 139, 140-141

u12.5   (Gabler—C)
First typescript: exemplar (incomplete) made in 1919 but prepared for the printer of Ulysses in 1921.
MS Buffalo V.B.10.a: 49-50 (pp.1-2), missing, 59-70 (pp.11-22), missing, 72-81 (pp.24-33)
Reproduced: JJA 13: 144-145, 146-157, 159-168
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B), N06 (NLI.4), Sheets 12 (Cyclops)

Placards and Proofs

u12.6   (Gabler—1: see also u12.6+)
First placards; (PL 32-1), (PL 34-1), (PL 35-1), (PL 36-1) and (PL 37-1) dated by the printer 30 September, 1 October, 3 October, 4 October and 5 October 1921.
MS Harvard: placards (←) 32-1, 33-1, 34-1, 35-1, 36-1, 37-1
Reproduced: JJA 19: 90-92, 103-110, 121-128, 149-156, 167-174, 203-210
Notebooks used: N02 (VI.D.7), N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B), N06 (NLI.4), N07 (V.A.2), Sheets 14 (Oxen)'

u12.6+   (Gabler—1)
Passage (U84 12.534-12.608) to be added to PL 34-1 above (a first draft appears in N07 (V.A.2.024));
MS Buffalo V.A.9: 1-2
Reproduced: JJA 13: 172-173
Notebooks used: N05 (NLI.5B)

u12.7   (Gabler—2)
Second placards; (PL 34-2), (PL 35-2), (PL 36-2) dated by the printer 4 October, 6 October, 8 October 1921;
MS Harvard: placards (←) 32-2, 33-2, 34-2, 34bis-1, 35-2, 36-2, 37-2
Reproduced: JJA 19: 98-100, 111-118, 129-136, 145, 157-164, 175-182, 211-218
Notebooks used: N01 (NLI.3), N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B), N06 (NLI.4), N07 (V.A.2)

u12.8   (Gabler—3)
Third placards; covers U84 12.443–U84 12.848 and U84 12.1184–end only; (PL 34-3), (PL 34bis-2) (PL 36-3) dated by the printer 6 October, 7 October, 8 October 1921 (yet see Selected Letters 29 August 1920 for request for Hungarian word for “Mr” = uram).
MS Harvard: placards 34-3, 34bis-2, / 36-3, 36bis-1, 37-3
Reproduced: JJA 19: 137-144, 146, / 183-190, 199, 219-226
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B), N06 (NLI.4), N07 (V.A.2), Sheets 15 (Circe)

u12.9   (Gabler—4)
First page proofs; extends as far as U84 12.1011 only; (PP 18) dated by the printer 10 October 1921, and dated for return 14 October 1921; (PP 19) dated by the printer 12 October 1921;
MS Buffalo V.C.1: gatherings (←) 18a, 19a
Reproduced: JJA 25: 2-10, 33-48
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B), N06 (NLI.4), N07 (V.A.2)

u12.9   (Gabler—4)
Fourth placards; covers U84 12.1184–end only; (PL 36) and (PL 37) dated by the printer 18 October 1921;
MS Harvard: placards 36-4, 36bis-2, 37-4
Reproduced: JJA 19: 191-198, 200, 227-234
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B), N06 (NLI.4), N07 (V.A.2), Sheets 15 (Circe), Sheets 17 (Ithaca)

u12.10   (Gabler—5)
Second page proofs; extends as far as U84 12.1004 only; (PP 18) dated by the printer 17 October 1921 and marked “Bon à tirer”;
MS Buffalo V.C.1: gatherings (←) 18b, 19b
Reproduced: JJA 25: 12-20, 49-64
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B), N06 (NLI.4), N07 (V.A.2)

u12.11   (Gabler—6)
Third page proofs; covers U84 12.358–U84 12.977 only; (PP 19) dated by the printer 19 October 1921; marked “Bon à tirer” and dated 25 October 1921.
MS Buffalo V.C.1: gatherings 19c
Reproduced: JJA 25: 65-80
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A)

u12.12   (Gabler—7)
Fourth page proofs; extends as far as U84 12.1570 only; (PP 18) dated by the printer 25 October 1921, marked “Bon à tirer” and dated 27 October 1921; (PP 19) dated by the printer 26 October 1921;
MS Texas gatherings 18, Princeton 19, 20
Reproduced: JJA 25: 22-30, 81-96, 135-150
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B)

u12.13   (Gabler—8)
Fifth page proofs; covers U84 12.338–end only; (PP 19) dated by the printer 7 November 1921, marked “Bon à tirer” and dated [14] November 1921; (PP 20), (PP 21) marked “Bon à tirer” and dated 14 November and 17 November 1921;
MS Texas gatherings 19, 20, 21
Reproduced: JJA 25: 97-114, 151-168, 171-180 (→)
Notebooks used: N04 (NLI.5A), N05 (NLI.5B), N06 (NLI.4), N07 (V.A.2)

u12.14   (Gabler—9)
Sixth page proofs; covers U84 12.907–U84 12.1549 only.
MS Texas gatherings 19, Princeton 20
Reproduced: JJA 25: 115, 119-134

Errata (post 1st edition)

u12.15   (Gabler—10)
Errata (corrections) in Joyce's hand. These corrections (found at the beginning of the earliest Finnegans Wake notebook) to the first few pages of the episode were not incorporated into the second edition.
MS: Buffalo VI.B.10, page 2
Reproduced: JJA 31: 81

u12.15'   (Gabler—10)
“Errata”: printed errata list for first edition; 2 copies
MS: BL Add MS 57356, fols. 28v, 29r; 32v, 33r
Reproduced: JJA 12: 204-205, 211-212

u12.15+   (Gabler—10)
Typescript (one relevant item only, also included in u12.15' above).
MS: BL Add MS 57356, fols. 24
Reproduced: JJA 12: 198